There are a lot of fish in both federal and state waters that fall into the forage category: sand lance, chub mackerel, herrings, halfbeaks, bay anchovies and more. A few of them are being managed with fishery-management plans, but the majority are not and could be exploited for a variety of uses, such as for fish meal or fish-based feed for aqua-cultured fish. Some, such as chub mackerel, could be used for human consumption. The problem with exploitation without reasonable controls is that there is no regulation of the amount of fish that can be removed. Not only does this impact the target species, but it also potentially impacts the species that rely on these fish as food. Understanding and considering forage species’ value in the marine ecosystem is one of the major concepts of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM).